FUNDAMENTALS OF NURSING
The Earliest Hospitals Established were the following:
a. Hospital Real de Manila (1577). It was established mainly to care for the Spanish King’s
soldiers, but also admitted Spanish civilians.Founded by Gov. Francisco de Sande
b. San Lazaro Hospital (1578) – built exclusively for patients with leprosy. Founded by Brother Juan Clemente
The Earliest Hospitals Established
a. Hospital de Indio (1586) –Established by the Franciscan Order; Service was in general
supported by alms and contribution from charitable persons.
b. Hospital de Aguas Santas (1590). Established in Laguna, near a medicinal spring, Founded by
Brother J. Bautista of the Franciscan Order.
c. San Juan de Dios Hospital (1596) Founded by the Brotherhood de Misericordia and support was derived from alms and rents. Rendered general health service to the public.
Nursing During the Philippine Revolution
The prominent persons involved in the nursing works were:
a. Josephine Bracken – wife of Jose Rizal. Installed a field hospital in an estate house in Tejeros. Provided nursing care to thw wounded night and day.
b. b.Rosa Sevilla De Alvero – converted their house into quarters for the filipino soldier,during the Philippine-American war that broke out in 1899.
c. Dona Hilaria de Aguinaldo – Wife of Emilio Aguinaldo; Organized the Filipino Red Cross under the inspiration of Apolinario Mabini.
d. Dona Maria de Aguinaldo- second wife of Emilio Aguinaldo.Provided nursing care for the Filipino soldier during the revolution. President of the Filipino Red Cross branch in Batangas.
e. Melchora Aquino (Tandang Sora) – Nurse the wounded Filipino soldiers and gave them shelter and food.
f. Captain Salome – A revolutionary leader in Nueva Ecija; provided nursing care to the wounded when not in combat.
g. Agueda Kahabagan – Revolutionary leader in Laguna, also provided nursing services to her troop.
h. Trinidad Tecson – “Ina ng Biac na Bato”, stayed in the hospital at Biac na Bato to care for the wounded soldier.
Hospitals and Nursing Schools
1.Iloilo Mission Hospital School of Nursing (Iloilo City, 1906)
Ø It was ran by the Baptist Foreign Mission Society of America.
Ø Miss Rose Nicolet, a graduate of New England Hospital for woman and children in Boston, Massechusettes, was the first superintendent.
Ø Miss Flora Ernst, an American nurse, took charge of the school in 1942.
2. St. Paul’s Hospital School of Nursing (Manila, 1907)
Ø The hospital was established by the Archbishop of Manila, The Most Reverend Jeremiah Harty, under the supervision of the Sisters of St. Paul de Chartres.
Ø It was located in Intramuros and it provided general hospital services.
3. Philippine general Hospital School of Nursing (1907)
Ø In 1907, with the support of the Governor General Forbes and the Director of Health and among others, she opened classes in nursing under the auspices of the Bureau of Education.
Ø Anastacia Giron-Tupas, was the first Filipino to occupy the position of chief nurse and superintendent in the Philippines, succeded her.
4.St. Luke’s Hospital School of Nursing (Quezon City, 1907)
Ø The Hospital is an Episcopalian Institution. It began as a small dispensary in 1903. In 1907, the school opened with three Filipino girls admitted.
Ø Mrs. Vitiliana Beltran was the first Filipino superintendent of nurses.
5. Mary Johnston Hospital and School of Nursing (Manila, 1907)
Ø It started as a small dispensary on Calle Cervantes (now Avenida)
Ø It was called Bethany Dispensary and was founded by the Methodist Mission.
Ø Miss Librada Javelera was the first Filipino director of the school.
6. Philippine Christian mission Institute School of Nursing.
The United Christian Missionary of Indianapolis, operated Three schools of Nursing:
1. Sallie Long Read Memorial Hospital School of Nursing (Laoag, Ilocos Norte,1903)
2. Mary Chiles Hospital school of Nursing (Manila, 1911)
3. Frank Dunn Memorial hospital
7. San Juan de Dios hospital School of Nursing (Manila, 1913)
8. Emmanuel Hospital School of Nursing (Capiz,1913)
9. Southern Island Hospital School of Nursing (Cebu,1918)
Ø The hospital was established under the Bureau of Health with Anastacia Giron-Tupas as the organizer.
The First Colleges of Nursing in the Philippines
Ø University of Santo Tomas .College of Nursing (1946)
Ø Manila Central University College of Nursing (1948)
Ø University of the Philippines College of Nursing (1948). Ms.Julita Sotejo was its first Dean
The Basic Human Needs
Ø Each individual has unique characteristics, but certain needs are common to all people.
Ø A need is something that is desirable,useful or necessary.
Ø Human needs are physiologic and psychologic conditions that an individual must meet to achieve a state of health or well-being.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Basic Human Needs
4. Body temperature
6. Rest and sleep
Safety and Security
The need for shelter and freedom from harm and danger
Love and belonging
The need to love and be loved
The need to care and to be cared for.
The need for affection: to associate or to belong
The need to establish fruitful and meaningful relationships with people,institution, or organization
The need to learn, create and understand or comprehend
The need for harmonious relationships
The need for beauty or aesthetics
The need for spiritual fulfillment
Characteristics of Basic Human Needs
1. Needs are universal.
2. Needs may be met in different ways
3. Needs may be stimulated by external and internal factor
4. Priorities may be deferred
5. Needs are interrelated
Concepts of health and Illness
is the fundamental right of every human being. It is the state of integration of the body and mind
Health and illness are highly individualized perception. Meanings and descriptions of health and illness vary among people in relation to geography and to culture.
Health - is the state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. (WHO)
Health – is the ability to maintain the internal milieu. Illness is the result of failure to maintain the internal environment.(Claude Bernard)
Health – is the ability to maintain homeostasis or dynamic equilibrium. Homeostasis is regulated by the negative feedback mechanism.(Walter Cannon)
Health – is being well and using ones’s power to the fullest extent. Health is maintained through prevention of diseases via environmental health factors.(Florence Nightingale)
Health – is viewed in terms of the individual’s ability to perform 14 components of nursing care unaided. (Henderson)
Positive Health – symbolizes wellness. It is value term defined by the culture or individual. (Rogers)
Health – is a state of a process of being becoming an integrated and whole as a person.(Roy)
Health – is a state the characterized by soundness or wholeness of developed human structures and of bodily and mental functioning.(Orem)
Health- is a dynamic state in the life cycle;illness is an interference in the life cycle. (King)
Wellness – is the condition in which all parts and subparts of an individual are in harmony with the whole system. (Neuman)
Health – is an elusive, dynamic state influenced by biologic,psychologic, and social factors.Health is reflected by the organization, interaction, interdependence and integration of the subsystems of the behavioral system.(Johnson)
Illness and Disease
Ø is a personal state in which the person feels unhealthy.
Ø Illness is a state in which a person’s physical, emotional, intellectual, social, developmental,or spiritual functioning is diminished or impaired compared with previous experience.
Ø Illness is not synonymous with disease.
Ø An alteration in body function resulting in reduction of capacities or a shortening of the normal life span.
Common Causes of Disease
Biologic agent – e.g. microorganism
Inherited genetic defects – e.g. cleft palate
Developmental defects – e.g. imperforate anus
Physical agents – e.g. radiation, hot and cold substances, ultraviolet rays
Chemical agents – e.g. lead, asbestos, carbon monoxide
Tissue response to irritations/injury – e.g. inflammation, fever
Faulty chemical/metabolic process – e.g. inadequate insulin in diabetes
Emotional/physical reaction to stress – e.g. fear, anxiety
Stages of Illness
Symptoms Experience- experience some symptoms, person believes something is wrong
3 aspects –physical, cognitive, emotional
Assumption of Sick Role – acceptance of illness, seeks advice
Medical Care Contact
Seeks advice to professionals for validation of real illness,explanation of symptoms, reassurance
or predict of outcome
Dependent Patient Role
The person becomes a client dependent on the health professional for help.
Accepts/rejects health professional’s suggestions.
Becomes more passive and accepting.
Gives up the sick role and returns to former roles and functions.
Risk Factors of a Disease
1. Genetic and Physiological Factors
Ø For example, a person with a family history of diabetes mellitus, is at risk in developing the disease later in life.
Ø Age increases and decreases susceptibility ( risk of heart diseases increases with age for both sexes
Ø The physical environment in which a person works or lives can increase the likelihood that certain illnesses will occur.
Ø Lifestyle practices and behaviors can also have positive or negative effects on health.
Classification of Diseases
1. According to Etiologic Factors
a. Hereditary – due to defect in the genes of one or other parent which is transmitted to the
b. Congenital – due to a defect in the development, hereditary factors, or prenatal infection
c. Metabolic – due to disturbances or abnormality in the intricate processes of metabolism.
d. Deficiency – results from inadequate intake or absorption of essential dietary factor.
e. Traumatic- due to injury
f. Allergic – due to abnormal response of the body to chemical and protein substances or to physical stimuli.
g. Neoplastic – due to abnormal or uncontrolled growth of cell.
h. Idiopathic –Cause is unknown; self-originated; of spontaneous origin
i. Degenerative –Results from the degenerative changes that occur in the tissue and organs.
j. Iatrogenic – result from the treatment of the disease
2. According to Duration or Onset
a. a.Acute Illness – An acute illness usually has a short duration and is severe. Signs and symptoms appears abruptly, intense and often subside after a relatively short period.
b. Chronic Illness – chronic illness usually longer than 6 months, and can also affects functioning in any dimension. The client may fluctuate between maximal functioning and serious relapses and may be life threatening. Is is characterized by remission and exacerbation.
Ø Remission- periods during which the disease is controlled and symptoms are not obvious.
Ø Exacerbations – The disease becomes more active given again at a future time, with recurrence of pronounced symptoms.
c. Sub-Acute – Symptoms are pronounced but more prolonged than the acute disease.
3. Disease may also be Described as:
a. Organic – results from changes in the normal structure, from recognizable anatomical changes in an organ or tissue of the body.
b. Functional – no anatomical changes are observed to account from the symptoms present, may result from abnormal response to stimuli.
c. Occupational – Results from factors associated with the occupation engage in by the patient.
d. Venereal – usually acquired through sexual relation
e. Familial – occurs in several individuals of the same family
f. Epidemic – attacks a large number of individuals in the community at the same time. (e.g. SARS)
g. Endemic – Presents more or less continuously or recurs in a community. (e.g. malaria, goiter)
h. Pandemic –An epidemic which is extremely widespread involving an entire country or continent.
i. Sporadic – a disease in which only occasional cases occur. (e.g. dengue, leptospirosis)
Leavell and Clark’s Three Levels of Prevention
a. Primary Prevention – seeks to prevent a disease or condition at a prepathologic state ; to stop something from ever happening.
Ø Health Promotion
-good standard of nutrition adjusted to
developmental phase of life
Ø Specific Protection
-use of specific immunization
-attention to personal hygiene
-use of environmental sanitation
-protection against occupational hazards
-protection from accidents
-use of specific nutrients
-protections from carcinogens
-avoidance to allergens
b. Secondary Prevention – also known as “Health Maintenance”.Seeks to identify specific
illnesses or conditions at an early stage with prompt intervention to prevent or limit disability;
to prevent catastrophic effects that could occur if proper attention and treatment are not
Ø Early Diagnosis and Prompt Treatment
-case finding measures
-individual and mass screening survey
-prevent spread of communicable disease
-prevent complication and sequelae
-shorten period of disability
Ø Disability Limitations
- adequate treatment to arrest disease process and prevent further complication and
-provision of facilities to limit disability and prevent death.
c. Tertiary Prevention – occurs after a disease or disability has occurred and the recovery
process has begun; Intent is to halt the disease or injury process and assist the person in
obtaining an optimal health status.To establish a high-level wellness.
“To maximize use of remaining capacities”s
Ø Restoration and Rehabilitation
-work therapy in hospital
- use of shelter colony
Saturday, January 5, 2008
FUNDAMENTALS OF NURSING
Posted by Rey at 3:50 AM